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Discussion Starter · #1 ·
The full press release. Grab a cup of coffee as you sit down for the next 20 minutes and read all of this info.

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New edition of the premium small car segment original; new MINI with hallmark emotional design, further optimised balance between driving fun and fuel consumption, innovative networking technology and clever functionality; significant advances in the areas of spatial comfort, safety, equipment, quality of material and finish as well as sporty flair and ride comfort as the result of consistently and extensively refined product substance; new model generation now more than ever before the benchmark for driving fun, premium quality and individual flair within its competitive environment.

• Exterior design refined on an evolutionary basis with hallmark styling, proportions and body structure; characteristic design features such as hexagonal radiator grille, headlamps and rear light clusters with wide chrome surround, turn indicator element and peripheral body surround in black reinterpreted and given additional emphasis due to the surface design in each specific area; high-end details underscore the sophisticated nature of the new model; five exterior paint finishes, roof in contrasting colour available as an option at no extra charge.

• Newly designed headlamps; daytime driving light; optional: LED headlamps including daytime driving ring with integrated direction indicator, adaptive light distribution and LED fog lamps; rear lights also optionally available in LED technology, optional lighting package with LED interior lights and orange-coloured ambient lighting.

• Vehicle length increased by 98 millimetres, width by 44 millimetres, height by 7 millimetres, also longer wheelbase (+ 28 millimetres) and larger track width (front + 42 millimetres, rear + 34 millimetres) as compared to the predecessor model (differential figures relate to MINI Cooper); optimised spatial comfort on all four seats; new seat design with larger adjustment range at front and longer seat surface at rear (+ 23 millimetres); more shoulder room and foot space as well as increased comfort for rear passengers; luggage compartment volume increased by 51 litres to 211 litres; rear backrest foldable with 60 : 40 split; optional storage package including luggage compartment floor which can be locked into place at varying points.

• New generation of engines with MINI TwinPower Turbo Technology; three model variants available as of market launch: MINI Cooper with 100 kW/136 bhp 3-cylinder engine, MINI Cooper S with 141 kW/192 bhp 4-cylinder petrol engine and MINI Cooper D with 3-cylinder diesel engine (85 kW/116 bhp); 6-speed manual transmission as standard, with optional 6-speed automatic transmission or sports automatic transmission, also newly developed; extensive MINIMALISM technology including automatic engine start/stop function likewise in conjunction with automatic transmission and optional GREEN mode; improved driving performance figures and reduced fuel consumption; biggest efficiency advance in the MINI Cooper with automatic transmission: acceleration from zero to 100 km/h 2.6 seconds faster, average fuel consumption 27 per cent lower; lowest fuel consumption and CO2 levels in the MINI Cooper D: 3.5 – 3.6 litres/100 km, 92 – 95 g/km (EU test cycle figures, dependent on tyre format selected).

• Intensification of the typical MINI go-kart feeling with extensively revised suspension technology, reduced weight and increased rigidity; new single-joint spring strut axle with aluminium swivel bearing and also axle supports and wishbones made of high-strength steel; new multilink rear axle also in optimised lightweight construction and space-saving geometry; refined electromechanical power steering now with Servotronic as standard; Dynamic Stability Control (DSC) as standard including Dynamic Traction Control (DTC) and Electronic Differential Lock Control (EDLC), in the MINI Cooper S also including Performance Control; new spring and damper set-up with triple-path support bearings; Dynamic Damper Control optionally available for the first time in MINI; refined brake system, adapted to increased driving performance; light alloy wheels in 15-inch or 16-inch (MINI Cooper S) format as standard; light allow wheels optionally available up to 18 inches.

• Variable vehicle set-up using the new Driving Modes option by means of rotary switch at the base of the gearshift or selector lever; in addition to the standard setting MID mode, the modes SPORT and GREEN can be activated; choice of mode influences the characteristic curve of the accelerator and steering, as well as the shift times of the automatic transmission and the Dynamic Damper Control where these features are fitted; GREEN mode in conjunction with automatic transmission enables coasting with decoupled drivetrain.

• New display and operating concept: instrument cluster on the steering column showing road speed and engine speed, colour display for vehicle status details and fuel level; central instrument with new display elements and coloured lighting configuration including LED ring for visual feedback in response to numerous operating functions, 4-line TFT display as standard or optional colour display up to 8.8 inches in size; operation of navigation, entertainment, telephone and vehicle functions using MINI Controller in centre console with the relevant feedback provided on the on-board computer; start/stop button at the centre of the toggle switch bar on the centre console, can be activated without key insertion; power window lifts in the door trim panels; operating panel for lights in the dashboard.

• Body structure weight-optimised and crash-optimised; standard safety features including front and side airbags, side curtain airbags, 3-point automatic seat belts on all seats, with belt tensioners and belt force limiters at front, ISOFIX children's seat mounting at rear, Run Flat Indicator and partially active engine compartment lid to optimise pedestrian protection; vehicle weight lower than in predecessor models and competitors in the segment in virtually all variants of the new MINI despite extended range of fittings; increased acoustic and vibrational comfort: optimised aerodynamic properties as appropriate to each specific model including active cooling air flaps, underbody trim panel and air ducting elements in the upper section of the C columns; best aerodynamic figures within the competitive environment: Cd value reduced to 0.28 (MINI Cooper, MINI Cooper D).

• New MINI with significantly extended range of innovative driver assistance systems: MINI Head-Up-Display, Driving Assistant including camera-based active cruise control, collision and pedestrian warning with initial brake function, high beam assistant and road sign detection, parking assistant; rear view camera.

• Newly structured MINI Connected in-car infotainment program with additional functions; Emergency Call and MINI Teleservices available for use with permanently installed SIM card; unique range of functions and the opportunity for ongoing expansion due to apps allowing integration in the car via smartphone; increased driving fun with typical MINI functions such as Mission Control, Dynamic Music, Driving Excitement and MINIMALISM Analyser; new MINI Connected XL Journey Mate with Real Time Traffic Information; online connection also allows the use of social networks such as Facebook, Twitter, foursquare and Glympse, the reception of RSS newsfeeds and entertainment features such as AUPEO!, Stitcher, Deezer, Audible, Napster/Rhapsody and TuneIn.

• Extensive standard fittings and high-end options to increase comfort, premium characteristics and individual flair; these include: rain sensor, Park Distance Control, Comfort Access, electrically operated glass roof, roof rails, electrically heated and folding exterior mirrors, interior and exterior mirrors with automatic anti-dazzle function, seat heating, 2-zone automatic air conditioning, rear spoiler in John Cooper Works design; large selection of decorative roof and exterior mirror options, bonnet stripes, seat upholsteries, interior surfaces and Colour Lines; MINI navigation system, MINI Radio Visual Boost, harman kardon hi-fi speaker system.

• Engine variants:
MINI Cooper S: 4-cylinder petrol engine with MINI TwinPower Turbo Technology (turbo charging, direct injection, fully variable valve control, variable camshaft control),
capacity: 1 998 cc, output: 141 kW/192 bhp at 4 700 – 6 000 rpm, max. torque: 280 Nm at 1 250 – 4 750 rpm
(300 Nm with overboost),
acceleration (0–100 km/h): 6.8 seconds (automatic: 6.7 seconds),
top speed: 235 km/h (233 km/h),
average fuel consumption*: 5.7 – 5.8 litres (5.2 – 5.4 litres)/100 kilometres,
CO2 emissions*: 133 – 136 g/km (122 – 125 g/km), exhaust emission standard: EU6.

MINI Cooper: 3-cylinder petrol engine with MINI TwinPower Turbo Technology (turbo charging, direct injection, fully variable valve control, variable camshaft control),
capacity: 1 499 cc,
output: 100 kW/136 bhp at 4 500 – 6 000 rpm,
max. torque: 220 Nm at 1 250 – 4 000 rpm
(230 Nm with overboost),
acceleration (0–100 km/h): 7.9 seconds (automatic: 7.8 seconds),
top speed: 210 km/h (210 km/h),
average fuel consumption*: 4.5 – 4.6 litres (4.7 – 4.8 litres)/100 kilometres,
CO2 emissions*: 105 – 107 g/km (109 – 112 g/km).

MINI Cooper D: 3-cylinder diesel engine with MINI TwinPower Turbo Technology (turbocharger with variable turbine geometry, common rail direct injection, max. fuel injection pressure: 2 000 bar),
capacity: 1 496 cc,
output: 85 kW/116 bhp at 4 000 rpm,
max. torque: 270 Nm at 1 750 rpm,
acceleration (0–100 km/h): 9.2 seconds (automatic: 9.2 seconds),
top speed: 205 km/h (204 km/h),
average fuel consumption*: 3.5 – 3.6 litres (3.7 – 3.8 litres)/100 kilometres,
CO2 emissions*: 92 – 95 g/km (98 – 99 g/km), exhaust emission standard: EU6.

* Fuel consumption depends on the selected tyre format.

• Exterior dimensions:
Length: 3 821 millimetres (MINI Cooper S: 3 850 millimetres)
Width: 1 727 millimetres)
Height: 1 414 millimetres)
Wheelbase: 2 495 millimetres
 

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Discussion Starter · #2 ·
Munich/Tokyo. Just a few days after the world premiere of the new MINI in its home country the UK, it now makes its first trade fair appearance in Asia at the 2013 Tokyo Motor Show. The new edition of this globally successful model will therefore be one of the highlights at the international motor show in the capital of Japan. The instantly recognisable features of the new MINI are its unmistakable design - which has now evolved further - increased interior space and a new display and operating concept. But it also comes with an entirely new range of engines and transmissions, completely revised suspension technology and numerous innovations in the field of driver assistance systems, making it one of the most spectacular new products on show at the 2013 Tokyo Motor Show.

The debut of the new MINI in Tokyo is supplemented with an extensive presentation of the brand's other models. At the international trade fair centre Big Sight, visitors will be able to experience driving fun, premium quality and individual flair in all its diversity from November 23rd to December 1st 2013 - from the highly sporty open-top two-seater MINI John Cooper Works Roadster to the exclusive design model MINI Clubman Bond Street and the latest all-wheel drive model, the MINI Cooper Crossover ALL4.

The new MINI: more distinctive and progressive than ever.
The latest edition of the MINI features an extensive upgrade in terms of product substance that benefits its sporty, agile handling, ride comfort and efficiency as well as enhancing its unmistakable aura, functionality and premium style. New engines with MINI TwinPower Turbo Technology and likewise newly developed transmissions increase the car's sprint capabilities while at the same time reducing fuel consumption. Efficiency is significantly boosted by means of extensive MINIMALISM technology, consistently optimised weight and improved aerodynamic properties.

The sophisticated technology of the new MINI, unparalleled in the small car segment, is also reflected in numerous innovative features. For the first time ever, a MINI can be fitted with adjustable dampers. The new MINI Driving Modes option allows the car to be driven in GREEN mode, including coasting function with decoupled drivetrain. Another unique feature in this class of vehicle are the optionally available LED headlamps. Meanwhile the range of driver assistance systems and MINI Connected Services has been significantly expanded. New features in this area include the MINI Head-Up Display, the Driving Assistant with camera-based active cruise control, collision warning and road sign recognition, the parking assistant and Emergency Call.

Hallmark proportions, optimised space.
This latest evolutionary stage in the development of MINI enhances not only driving fun but also the car's quality feel, the space available on all four seats and the level of safety. The new MINI is 98 millimetres longer, 44 millimetres wider and 7 millimetres higher than its predecessor. The wheelbase has been extended by 28 millimetres while the track has been increased by 42 millimetres at the front and 34 millimetres at the rear. Bot cornering agility and ride comfort benefit from these new dimensions as does the amount of space available to occupants, and the luggage compartment volume has also been increased by 51 litres to a total of 211 litres.

Like its proportions, the evolutionary refinement of the model's design ensures that characteristic features are retained. The three-section body structure continues to define the car's distinctive look in the new MINI. The main corpus of the vehicle, the greenhouse glass section encompassing the entire car and the roof on top are clearly separated from each other in visual terms. The wide track and short overhangs emphasise the striking expression of the vehicle's corpus, seated powerfully on the wheels. The athletic stature of the new MINI is also highlighted by prominent lines in the side view. Traditional design features such as the hexagonal contour of the radiator grille, the side indicator surrounds known as side scuttles, the circular headlights, the upright rear light clusters and the black periphery around the bottom edge of the body are reinterpreted and given additional emphasis by means of a high-end surface design in each specific area.

The MINI Cooper S draws its model-specific sporty flair from such features as a radiator grille with honeycomb pattern, an additional opening in the bonnet, brake air ducts integrated in the lower air inlets and a separate rear apron with exhaust tailpipes arranged at the centre. In addition to the side scuttle elements, the radiator grille of this model variant now also bears an "S" logo with chrome surround.

Unique in the segment: LED headlamps and adaptive light distribution.
The new MINI is the first car in its segment to offer the option of LED headlamps. The bright white LED units provide the light source for both low and high beam. They are also surrounded by an LED daylight driving ring, of which the lower section reaches down to the white turn indicators. Another option is an adaptive light distribution function that ensures optimum illumination of the road surface and roadside - depending on situation and route profile - and also includes a turning light. The optional fog lamps are likewise available in halogen or LED, according to preference. In conjunction with the LED headlamps, the rear light clusters also come as LED units.

High-end interior with new display and operating concept.
The design of the interior likewise combines hallmark brand styling with an optimised premium look and feel. A key element here - in addition to the high-quality selection of materials and colours - is the new display and operating concept. One of the most important new features is the instrument cluster on the steering column. Road speed, engine speed and fuel supply are displayed on vertically arranged circular instruments. The speedometer scale includes a colour display for Check Control messages, vehicle status displays and visual indicators relating to currently activated driver assistance systems.

With its new indicator elements and extended functionality, the central instrument so characteristic of MINI intensifies the interaction between driver and car. As an optional extra, its interior surface can also act as an on-board computer. The colour screen - measuring up to 8.8 inches - is used along with the MINI Controller on the centre console to operate vehicle functions, air conditioning, infotainment, communication, navigation and MINI Connected Services. This allows for intuitive, safe and convenient operation based on the principles of the BMW iDrive system - a ground-breaking force throughout the entire automotive sector.

The innovative display and operating concept is supported by a lighting design in the area of the central instrument which is unique to MINI. LED units around the outer edge of the circular instrument - optionally available in six colours - can respond to the current situation on the road or else to specific operating steps as the driver prefers.

The increased interior space available and a wide range of clever details make for further advancements in the area of functionality. The split rear backrest is not only foldable, its tilt angle can be adjusted too. Numerous cupholders and storage facilities make it easy to take drinks and travel utensils along in the car, and there is an additional storage compartment behind the decorative strip on the passenger side.

New engines with MINI TwinPower Turbo Technology.
The new MINI lines up for its launch on the Japanese automotive market in two model variants: the MINI Cooper and the MINI Cooper S. Both are powered by completely newly developed engines featuring MINI TwinPower Turbo Technology, including a turbocharging system, petrol direct injection, variable camshaft control on the intake and exhaust side (double VANOS) and fully variable valve control in the form of VALVETRONIC, as patented by the BMW Group. The engines are combined with a 6-speed manual transmission as standard, with the option of a 6-speed automatic transmission.

The new MINI Cooper S is powered by a 2.0-litre 4-cylinder engine with a peak output of 141 kW/192 bhp which goes on stream between 4 700 and 6 000 rpm, delivering its maximum torque of 280 Newton metres at 1 250 rpm. Torque can even briefly be increased to 300 Newton metres by means of an overboost function. As a result, acceleration from zero to 100 km/h takes just 6.8 seconds (automatic: (6.7 seconds), while the top speed is 235 km/h (233 km/h). This fascinating sporty flair goes hand in hand with further optimised efficiency. The combined range of the new MINI Cooper S is 15.8 km/l (automatic: 17.6 km/l).

The 3-cylinder engine in the new MINI Cooper - also newly developed - delivers an output of 100 kW/136 bhp from a capacity of 1.5 litres between 4 500 and 6 000 rpm with a maximum torque of 220 Newton metres (230 Nm with overboost) at 1 250 rpm. With this increased performance the new MINI Cooper sprints from standing to 100 km/h in 7.9 seconds (automatic: 7.8 seconds), while its top speed is 210 km/h in each case. In spite of these enhanced performance figures, the new MINI Cooper also boasts a reduced level of fuel consumption. Its combined range is 19.2 km/l (automatic: 17.8 km/l).

MINI Driving Modes: sporty flair and efficiency at the turn of a switch.
For the first time, the MINI Driving Modes option is now available for the new MINI, allowing the driver to select a preferred set-up. A rotary switch at the base of the gear or selector lever is used to activate either standard MID mode, SPORT or GREEN mode. The MINI Driving Modes influence the characteristic curve of the accelerator and steering, as well as the shift properties of the automatic transmission and the damper set-up where applicable.

In GREEN mode - supporting a relaxed and more fuel-efficient driving style - the energy used by electrically powered comfort functions such as the air conditioning and exterior mirror heating is reduced. In cars fitted with automatic transmission it is also possible to use the coasting function. Here the drivetrain is decoupled at speeds of between 50 and 160 km/h, enabling the driver to remove their foot from the accelerator pedal.

Optimised suspension technology: less weight, more go-kart feeling and adjustable dampers for the first time.
The refinement of suspension technology in the new MINI aims to intensify experience of the car's agile handling properties, commonly known as the go-kart feeling. Virtually all parts have been modified at the front and rear axle so as to reduce weight and increase component rigidity. The set-up of the wheel suspension, body mounting, suspension, damping, steering and brakes has been adapted to the increased engine output and to the typical MINI concept consisting of front-wheel drive, transversely mounted engine at the front, low centre of gravity, short overhangs, wide track and rigid, weight-optimised body structure.

The optionally available adjustable dampers are another novel element in the range of MINI equipment features. Two characteristic lines are available for damper set-up, allowing activation of either a more comfort-oriented or a direct, sporty response to road bumps, depending on the given situation. The electromechanical power steering has also been subjected to extensive further development and includes the speed-related assistance function Servotronic as standard. DSC (Dynamic Stability Control) - likewise a standard feature - now also features a dry brake function, Fading Brake Support, a drive-off assistant and the traction mode DTC (Dynamic Traction Control). Meanwhile cornering agility is enhanced by means of Electronic Differential Lock Control (EDLC), and the new MINI Cooper S additionally features the Performance Control system.

Innovative driver assistance systems increase convenience and safety. Further evidence of the technological progress ushered in with the new edition of the MINI is to be found in the program of driver assistance systems. New features include the MINI Head-Up-Display which shows information relevant to the driver on an extendible monitor in the upper section of the dashboard between the windscreen and steering wheel. The new Driving Assistant option includes a camera-based cruise control and distance function, a collision warning with initial braking function, road sign detection and high beam assistant. A rear view camera and parking assistant are also available for the new MINI. The rear view camera, housed underneath the tailgate handle, sends video images to the on-board computer in the central instrument. The parking assistant automatically identifies suitable parking spaces at the roadside and then takes care of all the steering movements required to park the car.

A wide range of other high-end options in the areas of comfort, functionality and individuality are also available to allow drivers to style the new MINI according to their own detailed personal preferences. In addition to the air conditioning system (comes as standard in the MINI Cooper S) there is also a 2-zone automatic air conditioning system, seat heating for driver and front passenger, a panorama glass roof, a visibility package including windscreen heating, rain sensor and automatic light control, the harman kardon hi-fi speaker system and a sports leather steering wheel (as standard in the MINI Cooper S) including optional multifunction buttons and cruise control.

Other options include Comfort Access, Park Distance Control, roof rails and electrically heatable and folding exterior mirrors as well as interior and exterior mirrors with automatic anti-dazzle function. Options for customisation of the exterior and interior in hallmark brand style also include a rear spoiler in John Cooper Works design as well as various roof and exterior mirror decors, bonnet stripes, seat upholsteries, interior surfaces, Colour Lines and the lighting package with LED interior lighting and orange ambient lighting.

MINI Connected: premiere for Emergency Call; apps now also available for Android smartphones.
The option MINI Connected or MINI Connected XL is also available in conjunction with the Radio MINI Visual Boost and the MINI navigation system. It offers extensive integration of smartphones in the car and therefore the use of internet-based services in the areas of infotainment, communication and driver experience. These are provided via a range of apps whose functional diversity is being continuously expanded. MINI Connected XL also includes the function Journey Mate for networked navigation including Real Time Traffic Information with traffic feedback in real time. In future, both the MINI Connected App and the so-called MINI Connected ready Apps supplied by third-party providers will be available not just for the Apple iPhone but also for smartphones using the operating system Android.

And for the first time, the new MINI can be fitted with a SIM card which is permanently installed in the car. This can be used to make telephone calls required for Emergency Call , including automatic detection of vehicle location and accident severity.

MINI on the Asian automobile markets: a driving force for continuous growth.
The new MINI puts the British manufacturer of premium small cars and compact models fully on course to continue its global success story. 12 years after the relaunch of the brand, MINI has become established all over the world as the epitome of efficient driving fun, stylish individual flair and uncompromising quality. One key factor accounting for the continuous increase in sales figures is dynamic growth in the Asian automobile markets. The MINI Community in Japan are among the most demanding customers, as well as being especially open to technological innovations and therefore looking forward very keenly to the launch of the new MINI.

But the continuing growth of MINI is also due to the consistent expansion of its model range. By transferring the hallmark MINI qualities to new vehicle concepts and making a successful move into the compact segment, MINI has been able to inspire additional target groups with its driving fun, premium quality and individual flair. For this reason an overview of the most recent and most attractive representatives of the remainder of the model portfolio will likewise be on show at the 2013 Tokyo Motor Show, parallel to the debut of the new MINI.

The model program of the MINI family has continuously expanded over recent years to reach its current size of seven members. Hallmark brand qualities are to be found in the classic MINI vehicle concept just as they are in the MINI Clubman, which offers the additional benefit of expanded space. As a purebred two-seater, the MINI Coupé embodies a thoroughly sporty style. With the MINI Convertible and the MINI Roadster, motorists are offered two ways of enjoying the brand's typical driving fun in an open-top premium small car. And there are also two models now representing the brand's venture into a new market segment. The trailblazer here was the MINI Crossover, the first model of the brand to be fitted with four doors, a large tailgate and space for up to five occupants. As of this year, this agile all-rounder is now joined by the MINI Paceman, the world's first ever Sports Activity Coupé in the premium compact segment. The all-wheel drive system ALL4 specially developed for MINI is also available for the MINI Crossover and the MINI Paceman. With supreme traction and enhanced agility on bends, it adds yet another distinctive touch to the authentic driving fun offered by MINI. In future this can also be enjoyed in the models MINI Cooper ALL4 Countryman and MINI Cooper ALL4 Crossover and MINI Cooper ALL4 Paceman.

On the Japanese market, too, the aspirations of especially high-performance MINI models are addressed by the extremely sporty John Cooper Works versions. The range of top sports cars in the small car and compact segment has now also reached a total of seven models. With their drive and suspension technology derived directly from motor racing, an aerodynamically optimised exterior and specific interior styling, the John Cooper Works models generate an authentic race feeling. In the MINI John Cooper Works Crossover and MINI John Cooper Works Paceman, the enormous power of the 4-cylinder turbo engine is transferred to the road by the standard all-wheel drive system ALL4 to suit the given situation.

Note: The cars described in this press release correspond to the engine and fittings specifications of the Japanese automobile market. Deviations are possible in other markets. All figures for driving performance figures and fuel consumption figures are provisional.
 

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How to keep your turbocharged car alive for a long time
By Zsolt Gobolyos
There are multiple things you can personally do to keep your turbo healthy and alive, and to make your reconditioned unit last as long as the original one.
There is a contemporary trend of downsizing nowadays which is leading to more and more engine failures. This trend favours small capacity turbocharged engines. Turbocharging is needed for an obvious reason: turbos provide a better degree of charge, giving the engine higher specific power. However, these contemporary turbos are about half the size of those used two decades ago. They now rev up to 250,000 a minute, as opposed to 80-100,000/minute back then. Smaller weight means smaller inertia and thus, less turbo lag. High rpm, on the other hand, demands precisely engineered and manufactured bearings, high-precision assembly and an exacting balance. All of these mean however high manufacturing costs and proneness to failure.
Modern turbochargers – small sized and fast-revving – usually employ journal bearings and oil cooling, meaning there is no need for a separate water circuit. Instead of regular journal bearings turbine shafts are equipped with floating journal bearings. These bearings - both on the outside, on the housing; and inside, at the shaft - run on a thin film of oil, so when optimal hydrodynamic lubrication is achieved there is no metal-on-metal friction, only fluid friction. This is necessary because, without cooling the bearing from both ends, the rotating piece would overheat too fast. Heating and cooling are two fundamental concerns in the operation of a turbocharger; the third being the lubricant.
Once oil pressure and volume flow rate are built up to an adequate level within the turbocharger, there is optimal hydrodinamic lubrication, resulting in negligible wear. The reason is there is absolutely no metal-on-metal friction; oil mediates between the stationary and rotating parts. Of course oil deteriorates in time and needs to be replaced. Hypothetically a turbocharger should live much longer than the engine driving it with its exhaust gases. Hypothetically!
However, real life is altogether different. Turbochargers usually fail relatively early and their failure is almost exclusively due to an operating fault. Analysing the most common causes you will find that, more often than not, failures are related to lubrication: either to the inferior quality of the oil; or to the complete lack of oil at the place of intended lubrication: the journal bearings. The quality of oil is important for two main reasons: to provide adequate performance levels, and to ensure proper viscosity. Performance level is not only important in relation to the additives in the oil. There is correlation between soot generation, the cracking of the oil, the disintegration of its carbon chain structure and its performance levels. Fill your turbocharged engine with an inferior quality, lower performance oil, and negative consequences will invariably include damages to the turbocharger. If you choose some cheaper mineral oil instead of a synthetic one it is bound to have lower heat tolerance. And this means that when the heated turbine shaft meets the oil film, the edges of the latter will heat up to a degree where oil begins to burn. This generates soot which burns onto the shaft, right under the sliding surface of the bearing. This, in turn, will reduce the bearing gap, block the free flow of oil, causing the bearing to run warmer. What you see here is a self-aggravating process which invariably results in the bearing getting either stuck or completely worn. As a result the turbine will no longer run coaxially with the turbo housing, vanes will begin to touch the housing and get shredded down. This is a highly typical fault caused by a poor choice of lubricant.
Just as important as the quality of oil is the proper volume flow rate of oil within the turbocharger, over the bearings. I didn't say oil pressure but volume flow rate on purpose because you can have oil pressure if the returning oil tube in the turbocharger gets clogged or narrowed some way. This however puts the oil up at a dead end street. There will be no oil circulation, the lubricant will overheat and generate soot – and so forth, as described above.
When I once disassembled an almost brand new, yet failed turbocharger that had been installed on a used vehicle I could immediately see the problem. The shaft was covered in soot, while both the front and the rear end of the journal bearing was scratched and worn. There was no trace of oil on either the turbine or on the compressor wheel but the latter was already touching the housing and had begun to wear it. All of this meant a rather expensive repair as we had to replace the entire housing, not just the central section, because if you put your new wheel into the old, worn out house you will have too wide a gap and efficiency would be poor.
This damage was clearly caused by insufficient lubrication. Either someone floored the accelerator pedal during assembly, before oil pressure could built up, resulting in the turbocharger running practically dry; or oil feed / drainage was not sufficient, resulting in a lack of lubrication or low volume flow rate at the bearings.
After sustained, high-engine load turbochargers needs active cooling down. My experience is that most drivers do not pay attention to this, shutting down the engine almost immediately after pushing it hard. You can of course see the other extreme of the spectrum as streetracers keep their engines running at downtown filling stations to “cool the turbo”
Why the turbocharger needs cooling is obvious: its shaft gets so hot under heavy load that, with the oil pressure gone (because you have killed the engine), stagnant oil will be rapidly overheated, thereby propagating soot formation. However it you let the engine run just a little while longer, the 100°C lubricant will quickly cool down the much warmer shaft and bearing. You want to keep the oil from being heated to the temperature point where cracking could occur. That temperature should never be reached, not even locally, in smaller volumes.
When you drive flat out on the highway or tow your caravan up a steep incline, the turbocharger will heat up. If you shut down your engine right away, that'll take a heavy toll on your turbocharger seriously reducing its life expectancy. That is probably the single worst thing you could do to your turbo. If you want to help it survive you can engine break you way to your final destination: this feeds the turbo plenty of oil yet it does not have to do any work, and will subsequently cool down instead of heating up. Even better if you can operate the engine at idle for half a minute. That means oil pressure is less but still adequate ensuring a proper cooling down of the turbocharger. Mind you, this does not mean it will be cold. Touch the housing and your fingers will sizzle as they fry on the hot metal. But the bearing inside the housing will be no warmer than 150°C and that's all that matters.
If you have a car equipped with start-stop, worry not. You will rarely arrive at a situation where heavy engine load is immediately followed by the computer stopping the engine. If you want to protect your turbocharger, use high quality oil, keep lubrication, oil feed and discharge lines clean and make sure crankcase pressure isn't too high because that could inhibit the back flow of oil. Also, don't allow anything to enter the turbocharger. After subjecting your engine to extreme loads, let your car slow down with engine braking and then after stopping let the engine run another 30 seconds. Do all of that and you will not be giving much work to turbocharger repair workshops.

Miss any of these and your turbocharger will be short lived.
 
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